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Table of contents
- Small Business and Self-Employed Tax Center
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Abbreviations are confined to those listed on the Abbreviations page. Anglo-American vocabulary. The traditions of this dictionary are primarily British, and accordingly it preserves British terminological usage.
This affects note names, where semibreves, minims, crotchets and quavers are preferred to whole-, half-, quarter and eighth-notes etc. Cross-references will be found directing the reader to the British equivalent of any American term that might be expected to have its own entry. The Bible. The numbering of psalms follows the Revised Standard Version unless otherwise indicated. Dates are normally given according to the Gregorian calendar.
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Absolute consistency cannot be guaranteed for certain German and Italian 17th-century dates; usage varied from place to place and it is sometimes impossible to tell which calendar is applicable. We have however aimed to show precise dates, where known, according to the modern calendar. Methods of citing dates that are approximate or conjectural are outlined in Article Headings. Pitch notation. Octaves are reckoned from C upwards.
Italic type is used for specific pitches; pitch classes are given in roman capital letters. A different method is followed in a small number of specialized, technical articles; in such cases the exceptional usage is explained. Place names. These represent a particularly intractable, and sensitive, issue.
For present-day cities, the usage of The Times Atlas of the World is followed, except for those cities where there is a traditional and universally applied English name that differs from the local one e. Vienna, Rome, Munich. Common sense demands flexibility in the application of this rule. See also Transliteration.
Weights and measures. To conform with international practice, and with the declared policy of the British and United States governments, metric units are used in this dictionary except of course where imperial weights and measures appear in quoted matter. The names of authors appear, in the form chosen by authors themselves, beneath the article to which they apply.
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In the case of joint or multiple authorship, this is indicated where possible by reference to the numbered sections of articles. This method is also used where one author has revised and supplemented the work of another to an extent that the article can most properly be regarded as a joint contribution. In many cases, however, where one author has revised an article by another usually when the original author is no longer actively engaged in work on the topic concerned , the signature will take the form.
Where a revision is slight, and not of a kind to call for attribution, the form. A signature of the form. Articles on persons begin with their name and place and date of birth and death, followed by a statement of nationality and description, thus:. English composer. Where dates of baptism but not birth or burial but not death are known, they are given and specified as such:. The question mark is placed close to the element it qualifies; where it is spaced, it qualifies the series of elements that follows:. Jan Where nothing is known, nothing is stated. For example,. Any other forms used in such contexts are self-explanatory.
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It may not take account of naturalization, or birth, or ancestry. Smith [Brown] Mary — Mary Smith has the married name or pseudonym Brown; or Mary Brown is generally known under the name Smith this will be made clear in the text. The longer article texts in the dictionary are divided into sections for easier reference.
The most usual division is into sections numbered with arabic numerals and with headings in capitals e. LIFE 2. WORKS ; this method is used in many entries on composers. Sections of this kind may be subdivided into smaller ones, headed by parenthesized small roman numerals and with headings in italic. Occasionally other forms of subdivision are needed. Each entered member is numbered, thus:. The relationships between them are defined, where they are known. Entries on family firms, of publishers or instrument makers, are not necessarily numbered.
If two people — whether or not members of the same family, and irrespective of whether or not they have individual entries — bear the same name which for this purpose means the same name as far as the bold-type title is concerned , that name will always be followed by a parenthesized small roman numeral, chronologically determined e.
John Smith ii ; he will normally be referred to in this form throughout the dictionary. It will be understood that, for example, John Smith i and ii could be members of Smith i family, John Smith iii and v members of Smith ii family, and John Smith iv not a member of a family at all as far as this dictionary is concerned. So that each one can readily be found, we have also placed a cross-reference under each individual name: a departure from normal procedure, as people entered within a family entry do not also have separate bold-type entries of their own unless the spelling of the surname differs.
Cross-references in the dictionary are distinguished by the use of hyperlinks in small capitals. In the second edition of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians , a large capital was used for the initial letter of the entry referred to, for example:. All cross-references give the title of the article referred to in exactly the wording in which it appears, in bold type but excluding parenthesized matter , at the head of the entry. Cross-references are of two basic kinds.
A cross-reference may include, for the benefit of the reader who does not require fuller information or to distinguish usages of a term , a brief definition, thus:. Many cross-references of these kinds lead to two or more other entries. Simple cross-references have been included in abundance to help the reader who first looks under a different orthography or formulation. The other type of cross-reference is that within an article.
Many further cross-references will be found in running text; but none is provided to titles names, places, genres etc. The intention has been to direct the reader to places where he or she can, but might not have expected to, find further information on the topic looked up. Where an illustration, table or music example is relevant to more than one entry, that will be indicated by cross-reference. The text of the dictionary is printed in roman script, transliterated by systems chosen according to the requirements appropriate to different languages; in some cases an academic transliteration has been followed, permitting re-transliteration into the original, in others a phonetic one.
The transliteration system for Cyrillic scripts including Bulgarian [Bulg. Common usage and common sense demand that certain exceptions be made. Place names such as Moscow and Kiev are given in their standard forms. Prokofiev, Rachmaninoff and Tchaikovsky are spelled in their accepted English ways; so are Tcherepnin the spelling still followed by the family , Koussevitzky the spelling used by the Foundation and Cui, a name of Western origins. Strict transliteration is used in bibliographical contexts, and for example when a Russian-language item is cited for a non-Russian composer—this applies commonly to music in the other republics of the former Soviet Union orthography in a bibliography may often differ from that in the text of the article to which it belongs.
Names of those based outside mainland China and best known by other spellings appear in their customary romanization.
Bibliographies normally include studies on which authors have drawn as well as suggested further reading. They will be seen generally to have expanded to reflect the proliferation of studies focussed on ever more specific aspects of a subject. Nevertheless they are not, except in a small number of special cases, intended to represent comprehensive lists of the literature on the topic.
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Writings that are trivial or ephemeral, or that have been superseded, are unless of particular historiographical interest normally excluded. General histories or of specific periods or regions may be cited where they contain material of particular importance on the topic in question.
Bibliographies are chronologically arranged within categories for a bibliography that is categorized ; items are listed in order of first or cited publication. Items published in the same year are listed alphabetically by author or, for the same author, by title.
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Items for which no author or editor is given are placed before attributed items. In some longer articles usually those structured by self-contained topics rather than as historical surveys , bibliographies may be situated at the end of each section, according to convenience of use. The procedures of citation are broadly self-evident, but it may be helpful to outline here the main principles the reader is also referred to the list of bibliographical abbreviations.